Essential oils - is a multi-plant volatiles (from 50 to 500 compounds), organic matter, having the characteristic aroma of trehtonovy. Terminology Essential oils contain the genius of the ancient and the error are rendered fragrant incense, the volatility of the ether as a substance, presented to the people the gods of Olympus, while the oily-looking liquid on its chemical composition does not belong to a class of fats (oils). The composition of essential oils include the following groups of chemical compounds, terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, phenols, and therefore they are characterized by the following physico-chemical properties: density - 0, 8-1, 5 g / cm; t boil - 160 - 240 ° C; t crystallization - from 17 to -30 ° C. When exposed to light and oxygen osmolyayutsya. Do not react with Br, I, KMnO4, S, P. Do not dissolve in water - float on its surface. Soluble in benzene, ethers, alcohols, fats. Within 1-3 hours of completely evaporate from the sheet of white paper, leaving no greasy residue, although a slight staining of the paper is possible, if the essential oil has a color.
The number of different organic and inorganic substances that are part of essential oils varies according to changes in natural environmental factors. For example, the essential oil of frankincense, which has about 300 ingredients in a rainy summer may contain olibanola not 7, and 7, 5%. This deviation does not change any action, nor smell, nor the properties of essential oils, however, these deviations are not allowed to adopt a standard description of the essential oils. It is for this reason, only a half dozen (less multipartite) essential oils appear in the pharmacopoeias of various countries.
Essential oils are a priority of the substitution reaction of the merger, and in this - deep chemical philosophy of their positive effects on the body. As to the psychological motivations - the priority of individualism over collectivism is the philosophy of a high level of development.
and the Earth there are about 3000 plants from which to extract the essential oils. It's the trees, shrubs and grasses. Aromatics are special "reservoirs" of plants, formed by the separation and dissolution of cells, as well as in special storage cells. Aromatosoderzhaschim can be either the entire plant as a whole, as well as some specific part of it: the stems, roots, fruits, seeds, buds, flowers, pine needles, leaves and wood. Sometimes from the same plant species can get a lot of essential oils of different properties, flavor and action. Thus, from the bitter orange are three very different essential oils, "Bitter Orange" - from the rind of the fruit, "Petit Grain" - from the shoots and "Neroli" - from the inflorescences. Raw material for essential oils in different cases can be as fresh (for example, jasmine petals, which are to be collected is strictly at 4 am and immediately immersed in a tank enfleurage) and cured (blue chamomile flower). Percentage of the plant essential oil in relation to the total mass varies (for example, from 100 kg of eucalyptus leaves are up to 3 kg of incense, and from 100 kg of resin kommifora - only 350-400 g of essential oil of myrrh).